Vietnam Visa FAQs
All most popular questions and answers about Vietnam Visa on Arrival.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
We have listed the most frequently asked questions regarding visa on arrival below. However, if you have any further questions, feel free to contact us. You will receive an answer shortly.
If you are planning to arrive in Vietnam on an International flight landing at either Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, Da Nang or Nha Trang airport, a legitimate alternative to obtaining a full visa stamp from the Vietnamese Embassy, in your own or another country, is to opt for a very simple and much cheaper, visa on arrival (VOA). Once issued, this visa is exactly the same as a visa issued by any Vietnamese Embassy/Consulate, with the same limitations and conditions attached to its use.
The VOApaperwork is not a full visa, rather you employ an agent ( before you arrive) in Vietnam to obtain an official letter of approval that you present at the VOA counter when you land. Upon payment of a visa processing fee at the airport ( US$25 for one-month and three-month single entry visas, $50 for one-month and three-month multiple entry visas) you will receive your passport back with an official visa affixed. The visa service fees charged depending on the type of visa. Be aware that three-month multiple entry visas are sometimes subject to restrictions, so before finalising your plans in respect of entry to and exit from Vietnam it would be prudent to check whether you can obtain a visa for the required dates.
How to obtain your letter of approval?
Applying for a VOA letter of approval online is very easy. We accept all major credit cards and with some you can pay through PayPal or Onepay.
On the website or by email you will be asked for the following information:
- Your full name (it is required to be the same as shown on your passport)
- Present nationality
- Date of birth
- Passport number
- Passport expiry date
- Proposed date of arrival (this is the date you want your visa to start from. The start date of the visa itself will be the day you arrive - you may enter Vietnam at a later date (up to your exit date) but not before that date, so be sure to take time zone differences into account)
- Airport of arrival
- Purpose of visit
- Type of Vietnam visa: 1 or 3-month single/multiple entry visa
If you have children travelling with you and they have their own passports, you will be required to apply and pay the same fees as if they were an adult.
After entering the information online or following confirmation by email you will be directed to a secure website to pay for the processing fee. In two to three days we will email you the approval letter (see image). Don't be alarmed if there are other people's names on the letter (it is common for applications for up to 30 persons and all applicants' names are printed on one letter, consisting of one or more pages), together with their nationalities, dates of birth and passport numbers, but if you are concerned about privacy or security you should instead consider applying to an embassy/consulate for your visa. Alternatively you can ask for a private approval letter that bears only your name, and if applicable the names of family members or friends who are travelling with you.
What the approval letter looks like?
Please make sure that your surname, given names and entry/exit dates are correct. If you have applied for a multiple entry visa be sure that the approval letter states 'Is permitted to enter and exit Vietnam multiple times'. You will not be allowed to enter Vietnam before the entry date shown.The approval letter is valid at any of the three named airports but cannot be used at any land border crossing. If entering via a land crossing you must already be in possession of a valid visa. However do note that if you obtained your visa with a multiple-entry approval letter, you only need to enter via airport for the 1st time in which you got your visa stampped; you could go any way you like for subsequent visits.
Print the entire approval letter (colour preferred but not essential) and don't forget to take it with you! Some airlines will ask to see the letter before they allow you to check in or board the aircraft and you will need it at the VOA desk when you arrive at the airport in Vietnam. We also send you Vietnamese Visa Application Form - which is a two page document (this form is available upon arrival but you will usually have to queue to obtain it). Should you be unsure about what information is required in some of the sections of the downloaded form, please ask us for help.
Airport Visa Procedure and Payment Process
VOAs are handled by Department of Immigration staff at the airports and if the airport is operating, so is the VOA office. It is absolutely vital that you have your visa processing fee(s) on you, in cash as the authorities do not accept credit or debit cards. Unless you can pay in cash you won't be allowed into the country and you could end up having a wonderful holiday camped on the wrong side of the barrier until your return flight leaves. If you have a bank card an immigration officer might offer to escort you to an ATM landside to withdraw some money. They have been known to accept payment in currencies other than U S dollars but are not obligated to do so and therefore it should not be counted on. Recently an ATM has been installed at Tan Son Nhat Airport (HCMC) adjacent to the landing visa counter. While this might be of help to those arriving without cash, it is still advisable to bring the amount required. ATMs do break down or run out of cash and the inevitable lack of clarity regarding the dong/ US dollar exchange rate applied at the landing visa counter (the ATM issues dong), plus additional card charges, means it should be thought of as the method of last resort.
At Ho Chi Minh City (Tan Son Nhat International Airport) the VOA window is situated at the far end on the left as you enter the immigration hall. Do not join any queues for Immigration Control. The counter itself is sign-posted - LANDING VISA. When you get to the Landing Visa (VOA) window, be prepared to hand over your passport, ONE completed copy of Form N1, the entire letter of approval and ONE passport size photo (the officer will staple your photo to the form if not already attached). You should then go and sit down. Even with few people being processed do not expect passports (with the visa attached) to be returned in the order that they were presented at the window.
When your visa is ready, your name will be called (do keep your ears open) and at the same time your passport held up to the window with the photo page showing. You then pay the processing fee - US $25 for single entry visas (one and three months); $50 for multiple entry visas (one and three months). The notes should be in good condition (no marks, nicks or tears) but it is not necessary for them to be brand new. Once you have paid, your passport will be returned to you, along with a receipt for your payment. Be sure to check the newly issued visa for any errors while still at the window. You then go to an immigration control post to be processed in the normal way. Baggage reclaim and Customs are downstairs.
At Hanoi (Noi Bai International Airport) the VOA procedure has changed with the opening in January 2015 of the new international terminal. The VOA counter is situated opposite the immigration posts - the signage can be difficult to see if there are lots of people milling about. You must hand in your passport and documents at THE RIGHT-HAND SIDE. Then proceed to the left-hand side (or if busy, take a seat) to wait while your application is processed. There is large-screen display to the left of the counter, and when your visa is ready your passport photo, name and country will be shown and your name read out. At this point you pay. If you are processing multiple passports you will receive one pink receipt for all of them. Your visa(s) will have been affixed to a page your passport(s) and should be checked for errors while you are still at the counter. You can then proceed to the 'Foreigners' immigration queue. The entire process can take as little as 10 minutes or as much as an hour if there at lots of applicants and/or other flights have arrived at more or less the same time so the queues for immigration are long.
At Da Nang follow the exit signs. As soon as you enter the huge hall it is very easy to find the VOA window - it is on the left hand side and is clearly visible. The process is reasonably quick (approximately 15 minutes with all necessary paperwork completed before landing) but do bear in mind there is no guarantee it will be always be the same. After receiving visas / passports back, progress onwards to immigration control. Immigration Control can be slow, sometimes 3 or 4 long lines. Everyone queues up together going through the same check-points and there are no separate checkpoints for Vietnamese passengers and other nationalities.
Tip. If there are two or more of you obtaining VOA it would be prudent that once you've handed in your paperwork, that one of you stands in line for immigration control. That way you won't be at the back of a long queue.
Note: Public holidays in Vietnam, e.g. Tet (the Vietnamese New Year), can seriously delay not only VOA applications but also embassy issued visas as well. Apply for either in good time.
Citizens of some countries do not need a visa for short visits - for how this might affect your travel arrangements and the documents you will require, check with us or with a Vietnamese Consulate/Embassy in your own country.
If you are travelling direct to Phu Quoc Island and remaining there for the duration of your trip you do not need a visa. However, if you will be going to mainland Vietnam afterwards you must obtain a visa beforehand.
Extending a visa is no longer the simple process it once was. The rules have changed somewhat, so if you are thinking about extending your stay it would be wise to make enquiries in good time. It is certainly not something that should be left to the last minute.
Welcome to Việt Nam!
From Vietnam Immigration
In order to offer the convenience for our clients using Visa on arrival, we are please to summary the processing into 3 main steps:
Step 1 - Fill out personal information & Settle payment
- You are required to provide the personal information of the applicant(s) exactly such as the full name, date of birth, passport number, nationality, the date of arrival, and Vietnam visa type.
- Please double check all of information to make sure that it is correct.
- You can make payment with your credit/debit card via Gate2Shop/PayPal or via Western Union.
- The confirmation will be sent you right away to inform which date you will get visa approval letter.
Step 2 - Get Visa Approval letter
- Please download the approval letter and Entry form to check your personal information and the arrival date on it.
- Please print out the attached files and bring that along with 2 copies of your picture and some cash (25 USD/person for single entry or 50 USD/person for one month multiple entry).
- Please put all above mentioned things along with your passport, then show them to Immigration officer at Vietnam airport.
Step 3 - Get visa stamp
- At Vietnam airport please show all things (passport, approval letter, 2 passport photos and entry and exist form) which you prepare to an officer at Landing visa counter.
- While waiting for the officer paste visa stamp on your passport, please pay stamping fee in cash. Note that you should prepare stamping fee in USD currency to avoid troubles at Vietnam airports.
- Receiving back your passport, please check again the information on visa and take the receipt.
Stamping fee is paid in cash to Vietnamese Immigration Officer at arrival airport to get visa stamp.
1 month singgle entry 25 USD 1 month multiple entries 50 USD 3 months singgle entry 25 USD 3 months multiple entries 50 USD 6 months multiple entries 95 USD
Please note that you have to pay stamping fee in cash. So you should prepare stamping fee at home before arriving Vietnam airport. There is not ATM or currency exchange at Vietnam airport.
We suggest that you should use USD currency to get visa stamp.
Only citizens of certain countries can visit Vietnam without Vietnam entry visa.
Those countries include:
- Most citizens of ASEAN member countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao, Philipines and Brunei) are no need Vietnam visa for visiting Vietnam within 30 days.
- Citizens of Korea, Japan,Russia & Scandinavians (Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland passport holders) are no need Vietnam visa for visit Vietnam within 15 days.
All other citizens are required to get Vietnam entry visa before departure (Vietnam visa issued prior to departure by Vietnamese consulates or embassies) or a pre-approved Vietnam entry visa (visa is issued on arrival at Vietnam’s International Airports) supplied before arrival in Vietnam.
Who need visa to Vietnam ?
Only citizens of certain countries can visit Vietnam without Vietnam entry visa. Those countries include: most citizens of ASEAN countries are no need Vietnam visa for visit Vietnam within 30 days; citizens of Korea, Japan, Russia & Scandinavians (Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland passport holders) are no need Vietnam visa for visit Vietnam within 15 days. All other citizens are required to get Vietnam entry visa before departure (Vietnam visa issued prior to departure by Vietnamese consulates or embassies) or a pre-approved Vietnam entry visa (visa is issued on arrival at Vietnam’s International Airports) supplied before arrival in Vietnam.
Hereafter Vietnam Visa exemption information you should know:
- No Vietnam entry visa required for travel less than 30 days: Citizens of Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Brunei and Laos.
- No Vietnam entry visa required for travel less than 15 days: Citizens of Japan, South Korea, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland.
- No visa required for travel less than 90 days or several visits within 6 months: Citizens of France holding valid diplomatic or official passports.
- No Vietnam entry visa required for travel less than 60 days: Citizens of Chile holding valid diplomatic or official passports.
- No Vietnam entry visa required for travel less than 60 days: APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) Holders from Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies.
- No Vietnam entry visa for traveling to Phu Quoc Island – Vietnam : Foreigners and Vietnamese nationals bearing foreign passports who enter Vietnam through an international border gate and then travel to Phu Quoc Island and stay in Phu Quoc less than 15 days will also be exempt from Vietnam visa application. Passports must be valid for at least 45 days. After arriving in Phu Quoc Island, if visitors want to travel other localities or stay in the island for more than 15 days, the immigration department will be responsible for issuing visas right on the spot.
- No visa required for Vietnamese overseas less than 90days staying if holding Vietnam visa exemption certificate.
Yes, you can, if you applying Vietnam visa with our service.
But we recommend you should contact with Vietnamese Embassy for this case.
Please click Send visa form online for getting the approval letter online with us for your visa pick up at check-in point by road, sea or rail. There is a field for special request in our Visa form online, please inform us for picking up visa to Vietnam upon arrival if you come to Vietnam by sea or road by filling in this field.
We will charge you $20 more for your special visa request If you would like to arrange visa upon arrival by road or sea or rail.
- Please advise us exactly which port will you come.
- Please advise us exactly your airmail address as we will send original pre-approved letter for the visa upon arrival by sea, road or rail.
- We will arrange visa to Vietnam upon arrival by air automatically if no special request.
1. Only the citizens of below countries are able to visit Vietnam without an entry visa:
No need Vietnam visa within 30 days: Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Cambodia, and Laos
No need Vietnam visa within 21 days: Philippine
No need Vietnam visa within 15 days: Brunei, Korea, Japan, Russia and the Scandinavian nations (as Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland)
Please note that the citizens of above nations have to show the return ticket when you check in at Vietnam airport
2. Some exceptions:
- No required visa for traveling in Vietnam in less than 90 days or several visits within 6 months for citizens of France who holds valid diplomatic or official passports.
- No required visa for travelling in Vietnam in less than 90 days or several visits within 6 months for citizens of Chile who holds valid diplomatic or official passports.
- No required visa in 60 days each entry with APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) Holders from Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies.
- Foreigners and Vietnamese is holding foreign passports who enter Vietnam through an international border gate to travel in Phu Quoc Island and stay there for less than 15 days will also be exempted Vietnam visa. Passports must be valid for at least 45 days. After arriving in Phu Quoc Island the Vietnamese immigration Department is responsible for issuing visas on the spot if visitors would like to travel other localities or stay in the island over 15 days.
- No required visa for Vietnamese overseas in less than 90 days staying if they are holding Vietnam visa exemption certificate.
Vietnam visa on arrival is created to offer the most convenient, simple conditions to overseas tourists and businessmen. The only requirement of us is checking the validity of your passport. It has to be valid at least in 6 months.
Except for checking you do not need to send us any documents. Just click the tab "Apply visa" to start to fill out personal information in the online form.
It is vey simple and easy, isn't it?
- Fullname (as in passport)
- Date of birth
- Passport Number
- Proposed date of enter and exit Vietnam
- Required single or multiple entries visa
- Special request (if any)
We will process Vietnam visa upon arrival automatically if you don't have any special request.
Please remark us if you would like to get your visa stamp at Vietnam embassy which you want or at any check-in port by road or sea.
A. Download Immigration Form entry and exit at the airport.
- Glue photo 4x6cm at right top corner as the form request + 1 additional photo same size.
- Prepare 45 USD in cash for 1-3 months single entry.
- Or prepare 65 USD in cash for less than 1 months multiple entries
- Or Prepare 95 USD in for 3 months multiple entries or 135 USD for 6 months multiple entries.
B. Download Vietnam visa application for for Vietnam visa upon arrival.
If you don’t want to apply online, you can provide us your passport details as the form below to Info@Vietnam-Immigration.Net.
- Date of birth
- Passport number
- Date of arrival and date of exit.
We will contact with you immediately to handle the visa application for you.
- All details must correct as in passport. We will not be responsible for any trouble at the airport if you send us incorrect details.
- Date format : DD/MM/ YYYY, for example : 01 Jan 2009
- Port of arrival : airport only
- Passport expiration date must be 6 months or more than, if not, you can not boarding the airplane.
C. How the pre-approved letters look like ?
After you fill the form online & settle the payment successfully, we will send you pre-approved letter for picking up your visa upon arrival at the airport. Please make sure that you must have the pre-approved letter & print it out for boarding the airplane & get visa at the airport.
You can not boarding the airplane & Cannot get visa at the airport without the pre-approved letter. Attachments: "Visa approval letter"
Vietnam Visa Support Team
The service fees is the fees you have to pay us for services you use through terms of payment such as G2S, OnePay, Paypal, Western Union or Bank Transfer.
We offer Vietnam visa service, Fast Check in Service and Car pick up service.
Vietnam visa service: Please click here to have reference.
Fast Check in service: is the most convenient for overseas tourists. The staff will pick you up at Vietnam International Airports and assist you in completing all procedures. Please click here to understand how Fast check in service works.
- 15 USD/pax Hochiminh Airport
- 20 USD/pax Hanoi Airport
- 20 USD/pax Danang Airport
Car Pick up service: We offer a private car with a number of seats according to your request. Our well training driver will wait for you outside the Vietnam airport and drive you to special destination in centers. Please click here to know our Car pick up service.
For more details please feel free to contact us via mail firstname.lastname@example.org
First of all, please note that we charge you for our service fee only, the fee for the arrangement of the pre-approved letter for picking up your visa-upon-arrival at Vietnam airports. Once again, our fee is exclusive of the stamped fee amount, which will be paid directly at the airport when you pick up your Vietnam travel visa. Please Click here to see our charge fee.
We offer 4 methods of payment:
1. Settle the payment through credit cards with the Gate2Shop payment gate option.
Fill the * secure online form * with your passport details for your Vietnam visa-upon-arrival then click Submit. If you choose the payment through credit card option, our site will redirect you to a secure payment gate provided by Gate2Shop (http://www.gate2shop.com/).
You can pay using VisaCard, MasterCard, DinnersCards, SwitchCards or SoloCards or Paypal. You will be required to provide your personal and credit card details.
You will be sent to our Success Page if the payment is processed successfully. We will also send you an email to confirm your visa to Vietnam. If your payment had been unsuccessful, you will be shown the Failure page. At the same time, you will receive an email from us telling you that the payment cannot be processed.
If you still want us to help you get a Vietnam travel visa, you can forward the said email to Info@Vietnam-Immigration.Net or Visa@Vietnam-Immigration.Net to select another method of payment.
2. Settle the payment via Paypal (www.Paypal.Com).
Fill the online form with your passport details for Vietnam visa-upon-arrival then click Submit. The method for payment via Paypal.Com is the second option. If you choose to pay via Paypal.Com, click Submit and you will receive an email from us to confirm your personal details for visa with payment preference: Paypal.Com.
Within 1-2 business hours after the submission of your application with Paypal.Com, our staff will send you an email with the details of the transaction. After you receive the payment request details from us, you use your Paypal account or creating a new account on Paypal .Com by signing up. Send the money to Vietnam with the details we sent you thru email to confirm for the payment request. The step is very quick and easy.
Finally, please send us tracking number provided by Paypal or Moneybookers.com to confirm the payment made. Your visa to Vietnam will be processed immediately after we get the tracking number. It will take you only about 1 minute to settle the payment via Paypal.Com and confirm your payment with us by sending us an email with the tracking number provided by Paypal.Com.
Note: You could opt for the money to be delivered in USD.
3. Settle the payment via Western Union.
Fill the online form with your passport details for a visa-upon-arrival at Vietnam airport then click Submit. From the 4 options of payment method available, payment thru Western Union is the third option.
Choose the pay via Western Union option and submit. You will be directed to the Submit Successful Page. At the same time, we will send you an email confirming your personal details for visa with payment preference: Western Union.
Within 1-2 business hours after you submit your Vietnam visa application with the Western Union payment option, we will send you an email with the details of the transaction.
Upon receiving the payment details from us, go to www.WesternUnion.Com then send money to Vietnam using the details we sent you in the email confirming the payment request.
Finally, please send us Money Transfer Control Number (MTCN) provided by Western Union to confirm the payment made. Your visa to Vietnam will be processed immediately after we get the MTCN details for your payment.
4. Settle the payment via bank transfer EximBank.
Fill the online form with your passport details for visa-upon-arrival at Vietnam airport then click Submit. Choose the Bank transfer via EximBank, the last option for payment, and Submit.
You will be directed to the Submit Successful Page. At the same time, you will receive an email from us confirming your personal details for your Vietnam visa with payment preference: Bank transfer EximBank.
Within 1-2 business hours after you submit your visa, our staff will send you an email with the details for payment via bank transfer EximBank.
After getting the payment request details from us, you can go wire the money from your bank account to our EximBank account.
Finally, please email us any proof of payment or receipt and your Vietnam visa will be processed immediately. Once everything has been cleared, you are free to enjoy and travel Vietnam.
Saving you time & money is our first priority.
For any request, please email to: visa@Vietnam-Immigration.Net
Lee Nguyen (Mr.)
We are please to confirm that you can get Vietnam visa on arrival within 1 working day. You can do it with visa on arrival only.
There are 2 choices for you as below:
Super rush visa: Visa on arrival is ready in 30 minutes or 4 business hours. If you need it in emergency in 30 minutes, you just note in the " Special request" as well as provide us your flight Number and arrival time to Vietnam. For sure you should make a call to us with the hotline number (84) 902 54 18 00 (Mr Lee Nguyen) to remind and avoid unexceptional glitch in our system.
However if you need approval letter within 1 working day on Saturday, Sunday or public holidays you have to pay penalty visa service fee. The reason is that Vietnam Immigration Department does not work on these days. We have to process visa out of business hours and our company have to guarantee you.
In special cases you should consider carefully that how rush you need visa approval letter to choose the convenient choice.
Rush visa is always available for you. Click here to apply visa on arrival right now.
We also offer visa at Vietnam Embassy in your living country besides visa on arrival at Vietnam International airports.
Its facility is that you get visa stamp ready on your passport at Vietnam embassy which you require. So you can enter Vietnam easily by air, by road or by sea.
For instance you are travelling in Cambodia and you wish to enter Vietnam - a neighbouring country by bus. How can you get visa to enter Vietnam?
It is so easy to apply visa online on our website and write down what Vietnam embassy which you want to get visa stamp. As receiving your application we immediately process your visa in Vietnam Immigration Department. Within 2 working days we send you approval letter code via e-mail. Meanwhile the Vietnam Immigration Department sends fax of approval letter code to Vietnam Embassy which you require. You just only print out the letter code and take it to Vietnam Embassy, pay stamping fee and get visa stamp. All procedures at Vietnam embassy takes only 2 hours.
Some notes you have to remember are as follow:
- Vietnam Embassy only works on working days. For sure you make a call to ask their opening hours firstly.
- You should apply online visa at Vietnam embassy 4 days before arrival in Vietnam. The reason is that it takes one day for Vietnam Immigration Department to send fax to required Vietnam Embassy.
- You should clarify carefully the name of Vietnam embassy which is convenient for you in travelling itinerary.
Please click Send the form online for getting the approval letter code online with us.
We will arrange visa to Vietnam upon arrival automatically if no special request. Please remark us if you would like to get your visa stamped at Vietnam embassy or at any check-in point by road or sea.
You can get Vietnam visa stamp at:
Vietnam Embassy in your living country: You can get visa directly at Vietnam Embassy by yourself or by our Visa in Embassy service.
Vietnam International Airports: You can get visa stamp at Hochiminh airport, Hanoi airport and Danang airport with visa on arrival.
To get visa stamp at Vietnam International Airport, you have to obtain Vietnam approval letter (pre-approval letter) which is issued by Vietnam Immigration Department.
Arriving Vietnam International airport, in transfer hall you will see " Landing Visa" Counter. It is on the right hand in Immigration area. You will show all documents which you prepared at home in order for officer to check your information in the system. Then you will pay stamping fee and get back your passport with stamped visa.
Documents that you should prepare at home are below:
- Approval letter: Please download, check your information on it then print off right away.
- Stamping fee in cash: 45 USD for single entry , 65 USD for one month multiple entry (less than 30 days), or 95 USD for 3 month multiple entry.
- 2 passport photos size 4cm by 6cm. The smaller or bigger ones are accepted
- Enter and Exit Vietnam application: You can fill it at home or at Vietnam airport in "Landing visa" counter
We would like to inform you that Visa on arrival is available at the airport only. Therefore your visa must be picked up at Vietnam International Airports when you arrive.
Please consider our advice as below to decide single or multiple entries visa.
- A single entry visa allows you enter/ exit Vietnam only one time in the visa's valid period. It is also called visa with single use. Once your single entry visa is used, you can not enter again Vietnam with this used visa. You must apply a new one if you wish to come back Vietnam again.
- A multiple entries visa allows you enter / exit Vietnam many times as long as your visa still valid. Your multiple entries visa must be picked at the Vietnam airport in the first entry. Once the multiple etry visa stamp is available on your passport, you can enter or exit Vietnam whenever you want in any Vietnam International airports.
Anybody can apply visa to Vietnam with Vietnam tourist visa or Vietnam Business visa. The purpose to enter Vietnam is not important. With the business visa you can travel Vietnam normally.
In conclusion, we go suggest that you should make a travelling plan carefully before applying visa on arrival.